Beginner Poker Strategy: What are Ranges?

Poker is one of the biggest games in the world for several reasons. First, it is a game of skill. While chance plays a role in the short-term outcome of any given hand, over time, the skillful player will win more often than the novice. Second, poker is a game of psychology. Players must not only master the technical aspects of the game but also learn to read their opponents and maintain their poker faces. Third, poker is a versatile game that you can play in many different ways. There are countless variations of the game, each with its unique set of rules. Fourth, poker is a social game that players of all ages and backgrounds can enjoy. Fifth, poker is a relatively inexpensive game to play. While some high-stakes games are played for tens of thousands of dollars, most players are content to play for smaller stakes. For all these reasons, it is no wonder that poker is one of the biggest games in the world.

Poker is a game with endless possibilities. There are countless ways to play and different techniques and concepts you can implement. No two games are ever the same, and that’s part of what makes poker so exciting and addictive. Whether you’re playing for fun or profit, there’s always something new to learn. While this strategic depth is undoubtedly one of poker’s biggest strengths, it can confuse beginners on where to start. This poker guide will focus on a core strategy concept for newer poker players: Ranges.

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What are ranges?

In poker, a range is the complete set of possible hands a player may have at a given point in the game. It’s impossible to guess precisely which hand your opponent holds, so ranges must be used to approximate. Even if they’re just approximations, understanding ranges help you make far better decisions than playing blind. Ranges constantly change throughout the game, depending on the players’ position, playstyle, and actions.

Applications of ranges

Ranges have near-endless uses since it’s easy to imagine how having even a decent guess of your opponents’ cards helps your game. They help you spot bluffs, as seeing players act aggressively, even with a weak range, can signal a bluff attempt. They help you pull off your bluffs since other players with weak ranges could potentially fold to aggression. Ranges also help you play safer against opponents likely to have strong hands because of a substantial range. As you can see, ranges are incredibly versatile and an essential concept to understand in poker strategy.

Reading ranges: Pre-flop

In poker, the pre-flop is considered the most critical phase of play. This is because it sets the stage for the rest of the hand, and it’s here that you have the most information about your opponents. As such, reading ranges is crucial in this phase. To do so effectively, you first need to understand what kind of player your opponent is. This can be gleaned from playing against them or using poker tracking software. Generally, tighter players have higher-ranked ranges (e.g., AA-99), while looser players have more extensive ranges (e.g., AA-55). The second thing you must consider is position. Playing from a later position gives you an information advantage that allows you to get away with playing far more hands than you would normally. Finally, as you head into the flop, you must consider how they act. Calling pre-flop usually caps your range, as it is a more passive action than raising. This means that a pre-flop call signifies you don’t have the absolute strongest hands like AA; otherwise, you would have raised instead of calling. Likewise, the pre-flop aggressor has a more potent and more extensive range. While their aggression means they may have a strong hand, they can have almost anything, especially from a late position.

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Balancing your range

Understanding your opponents’ ranges is excellent, but you must also consider your range when playing. Skilled players will try to find your range, which is why you must be as unpredictable as possible and try to balance it. Balancing your range means including an equal amount of value bets to bluffs, keeping your range diverse, and making it difficult to tell what you could be holding at any moment. It also means playing the same way, even with different hands. If you always play one way with a certain kind of hands, like 3-betting AA and AKs, your opponents may catch on to these habits and exploit you. Combining these tips ensures your strategy is solid and unreadable, which you need when going against good opponents.

Range reading tips: Poker tracking software

Poker tracking software can be valuable if you’re finding it difficult to estimate your opponents’ ranges playing online poker. The critical statistic you’ll want to look at is VPIP (Voluntarily Put Money In Pot), the percentage of hands someone plays. Other vital stats include PFR (Preflop Raise) and 3-Bet%, which can indicate how aggressive someone is. By tracking these statistics, you can better understand the types of hands your opponents are likely to be playing and adjust your strategy accordingly. While it takes some time to set up and get used to using poker tracking software, it can be a valuable asset in helping you improve your results at the table.

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Keep practicing!

Poker is a game of both skill and chance. The better you understand the odds, the more advantage you have over your opponents. While there are always factors outside your control in any poker hand, by learning to read ranges and make educated guesses about what your opponent may be holding, you can put yourself in a much stronger position to win.